To accomplish the objectives of the Task, the Participants will carry out research and developments in the framework of the following four Subtasks and one joint working group:
Subtask A: User perspective and requirements
The newest research confirms long anticipated impact of lighting on people. Adequate lighting have positive impact on learning/work efficiency, mood and health. On the other side, people’s interaction with lighting systems have decisive impact on energy consumption for lighting. The human behaviour is nowadays the most important and challenging factor in lighting. This Subtask will deal with the consolidation of available knowledge (demands, chances and challenges) on user-, activity- and time-depending visual and non-visual requirements, as well as acceptance of lighting controls and their control strategies, including cultural and climatic dependencies. This knowledge will be used to set up use cases in specific applications, reflecting typical temporal changes in the usage of these interior spaces. The usage and the corresponding lighting requirements will be aggregated in so called personas, representations of the behaviour of a hypothesized group of users in the defined applications. Personas can be used to define the potential and benefits, such as user comfort and energy efficiency, of user centred integrated solutions more accurately, which is beneficial in the development (target group: lighting and façade industry) and lighting design (target groups: architects, lighting designers, policy makers and facility managers) of integrated solutions.
The work of Subtask A will be structured into three project areas:
- A.1. User requirements
- A.2. Use cases
- A.3. Representation of user behaviour - personas
Subtask B: Integration and Optimization of Daylight and Electric Lighting
The subtask aims at enlarging and communicating the potential and impact of integrated technical solutions with respect to user needs and system efficiency. Work will focus especially on advanced light management concepts (e.g. contrast and DGP based, spectral controls, lighting load prediction, meteo prediction) on the link between user perspectives and technologies (sensors, electric lighting, façade). This will be based on an appropriate modelling / performance metrics backbone. Workshops and projects with companies from different industrial sectors will be defined to combine knowledge and experience to allocate added value of integrated solutions. Technology roadmaps will be generated.
The objective of this subtask is to identify the promising technical solutions to offer optimal control of lighting and daylighting components. The success of these solutions will deal with:
- minimum use of lighting electricity,
- maximum satisfaction of users,
- most attractive user interface (for users and facility managers).
The subtask will gather information on existing systems. It will provide a critical analysis with respect to various criteria. Then a review of innovative solutions will identify if such new systems offer an improved better match to the demand.
The work of Subtask B will be structured into six project areas:
- B.1. Interview of professionals: opportunities and barriers
- B.2. Critical review of existing control systems and their functionalities
- B.3. Critical review of new approaches under development
- B.4. Review of other important aspects affecting performance of controls
- B.5. Critical analysis of interfaces
- B.6. Link with standardization activities
Subtask C: Design Support for Practitioners (Tools, Standards, Guidelines)
This subtask focuses on the application of technical innovations the field of integrated lighting solutions in practitioners’ workflows. The intent is to bring the findings onto the desktops of designers by integration of approaches into widely used software tools, standards and codes, and design guidelines. Hereby the different design phases from conceptual up to the final design shall be addressed.
An initial state of the art review of workflows applied in current practice will summarize well working examples and highlight open issues in the design of integrated lighting solutions. Due to missing standards for the characterization of daylight systems, including them in the planning process is still a major problem. Existing approaches for the characterization of façade systems will be collected and a compiled characterization scheme including specifications for measurements and simulations will be proposed as a draft standard. For the design of integrated solutions that support human well-being not only intensities, but also spectral effects are important. To enable statements also for the daylight part of the integrated solution, a spectral sky model will be elaborated. For the decision-making process, it is important to provide practitioners with a possibility to compare solutions. An hourly rating model for user-centered integral performance assessment will be developed. This evaluation algorithm will allow to assess both the non-visual effect and the energy efficiency of integrated lighting solutions at once.
The work in Subtask C will be structured into four project areas:
- C.1. Review of state of the art design workflows
- C.2. Standardization of BSDF daylight system characterization
- C.3. Spectral sky models for advanced daylight simulations
- C.4. Hourly rating method for integrated solutions
Subtask D: Lab and Field Study Performance Tracking
This subtask will demonstrate and assess, and either verify or reject, currently available and typically applied concepts for daylighting and electric lighting design and their integration in order to better understand how various integrated lighting systems and their control mechanisms behave with respect to a number of important parameters (e.g. energy use, thermal and visual environment, maintenance, adaptability to new requirements, etc.) and how building user respond to them. This will be achieved through a comprehensive literature review of relevant research materials (in close collaboration with Subtask A.1), targeted medium-term experiments in a number of living laboratories, supplemented by short-term investigations of specific concepts or ideas in controlled research laboratory environments, as well as performance tracking through “real” field studies in recently completed or retrofitted buildings across selected building types in several of the participating countries. Case studies will be selected in close collaboration with other subtasks, especially with subtasks A and B.
The work of Subtask D will be structured into four project areas:
- D.1. Literature Survey: Quantifying Potential Energy Savings
- D.2. Monitoring Protocol
- D.3. Case Studies: Living Laboratories and Real Buildings
- D.4. Lessons Learned – Guidance to Decision Makers
Joint Working Group: Evaluation tool & VR Decision Guide
The targeted dissemination and communication of task results needs joint and collaborative efforts. All subtasks will provide major parts of their results, as input to the joint work group comprising the development of
- an evaluation method for integrated lighting solutions and
- a virtual reality (VR) decision guide.
The work of the joint working group will be structured into two project areas:
- JWG.1. Evaluation method for integrated lighting solutions
- JWG.2. VR Decision Guide on integrated lighting solutions